APOTHECARY An Apothecary dispensed remedies made from herbs, plants and roots. Physicians were expensive and a priest often held this occupation, often the only recourse for sick, poor people.
ARTIST Artists were employed by the aristocracy, especially for portraits.
ASTROLOGER An astrologer studied the stars and planets but regarded as a mystical person.
BAKER Bread was a daily staple of Elizabethan life, and good bakers were employed by Nobles in their castles.
BARBER A Barber had many occupations in relation to personal care. Barbers would cut hair but would also serve as dentists, surgeons and blood-letters.
BLACKSMITH The Blacksmith was one of the most important, albeit lowly, occupations of the Elizabethan era. Blacksmiths forged weapons, sharpened weapons, repaired armor.
BOTTLER A Bottler had a responsible occupation and was in charge of the Bottlery which was intended for storing and dispensing wines and other expensive provisions.
BUTLER The Butler was responsible for the castle cellar and was in charge of large butts of beer. The room in the castle called the Buttery was intended for storing and dispensing beverages, especially ale.
BOWER OR BOWYER The Bowyer manufactured bows, arrows and crossbows.
CANDLEMAKER The Candlemaker made candles to light a castle or palace. Candles were supplemented by lighting from torches, lanterns and rush dips.
CARPENTER The occupation of the Carpenter was diverse. Carpenters built furniture, roofing, and wood panelling. Carpenter: a skilled craftsman who shaped or made things of wood. Carpenters were highly skilled and considered to be elite tradesmen.
CHAMBERLAIN Chamberlain - The title originated with an officer of a royal household who was responsible for the Chamber, which included the administration of the Queen's household's budget. This occupation was later extended to collecting revenues and paying expenses.
CHANCELLOR A chancellor was a secretary to a Noble or Royal person.
CHAPLAIN The Chaplain was responsible for the religious activities of a castle servants and Men at arms. The duties might also include that of a clerk and keeping accounts. A Priest would usually looked after the spiritual needs and confessions of the Nobles and their families.
CLERK A Clerk was employed to keep accounts.
CLOTHIER Clothiers made clothes for the nobles and required having a knowledge of various fine and expensive materials.
CONSTABLE Constable was the occupation of the person who had been appointed as Custodian, or in charge of, the castle.
COOK Cook was employed in the castle kitchens roasting, broiling, and baking food in the fireplaces and ovens.
CORDWAINER A Cordwainer was a Shoemaker or Cobbler, a craftsman who made shoes.
COTTAR A Cottar was one of the lowest peasant occupations, undertaken by the old or infirm, who had a series of low duties including swine-herd,, prison guard and menial tasks.
EWERER A Ewerer brought and heated water for nobles.
FISHERMAN Fishermen capture fish and other animals from a body of water, or gather shellfish.
FLETCHER The Fletcher crafted and manufactured bows and the flights of arrows.
GARDENER The Elizabethan Gardener needed a knowledge of herbs and plants.
GONG FARMER Gong was another name for dung.
HERALD OR HARKER A Herald was a knights assistant and an expert advisor on heraldry. The Herald (or Harker) would declare announcements on behalf of the Queen or Noble to the public. Normally this was done on a given day when the public would assemble at the base of a castle tower or in the town square and the Herald would shout out the news.
HERBALIST A Herbalist was usually a member of a religious order such as a monk or friar who would plant and maintainmedicinal plants, roots and herbs.
JANITOR The Janitor, or Porter, was responsible for a main Castle entrance and for the guardrooms. The Janitor also insured that no one entered or left the castle without permission.
JESTER The Jester also referred to as the Fool entertained the Queen and the court.
KEEPER OF THE WARDROBE The room in the castle called the wardrobe was intended as a dressing room and storage room for clothes and used by the Queen and Upper Classes. The Keeper of the Wardrobe was in charge of the tailors and laundress.
KNIGHT It was the duty of a Knight to learn how to fight and so serve their Queen according to the Code of Chivalry. Weapon practise included enhancing skills in the sword, battle axe, dagger and lance.
MARSHAL Marshal was the officer in charge of a household's horses, carts, wagons, containers and the transporting of goods.
MESSENGER Messengers were lesser diplomats of the lord who carried receipts, letters, and commodities.
MINSTREL Minstrels provided Castle entertainment in the form of singing and playing musical instruments. Minstrels often would record the deeds of heroic knights in songs giving the knight great publicity and establishing respect and additional status.
MONEYLENDER Moneylenders were the Elizabethan bankers.
PAGE The life of a castle Page would start at a very young age - seven years old. A Page was junior to a Squire. It was the duty of a Page to wait at table, care for the Lord's clothes and assist them in dressing. The Page was provided with a uniform of the colours and livery of the Lord.
PAINTER Elizabethan castles ere highly colorful and the services of painters were often required.
PORTER The Janitor, or Porter, was responsible for a Castle entrance and for the guardrooms. The Porter also insured that no one entered or left the castle without permission.
PHYSICIAN Physicians were a very highly regarded and respected occupation. Bleeding, lancing and surgical procedures were practised.
POTTER Potters were craftsmen of in clay, porcelain and early forms of ceramics. Basically they produced pots for cooking and storage and occasionally worked as sculptors. Potters were members of craft guilds.
REEVE The Reeve supervised all work on a lord's property. The Reeve ensured that everyone began and stopped work on time.
SCRIBE Most Scribes came from religious establishments where reading, writing and comprehension skills were learned.
SCULLION Scullions were the lowest of kitchen workers whose duties included washing and cleaning the kitchen.
SHOEMAKER A Shoemaker or Cobbler or Cordwainer was a craftsman who made shoes.
SPINSTER Spinster was the name of the occupation given to a woman who earned her living spinning yarn. The Spinning Wheel was invented during the Elizabethan era. Later the term Spinster was used to describe any unmarried woman.
STEWARD The Steward took care of castle estates and household administration including the events in the Great Hall.
SQUIRE A Squire was junior to a Knight. It was the duty of a Squire to learn about the Code of Chivalry, the rules of Heraldry, horsemanship and practise the use of weapons. It was also their duty to enter into court life and learn courtly etiquette, music and dancing.
WATCHMAN Watchmen was an official at the castle responsible for security. Also night-watchman.
Historical resources - An article on various aspects of daily life in the past, including period jobs and occupations.